In surface mining the ground covering the coal seam (the overburden) is first removed to expose the coal seam for extraction The elements of a surface mining operation are (1) topsoil removal and storage for later use (2) drilling and blasting the strata overlying the coal seam (3) loading and Coal mining is the process of getting coal out of the ground It is part of the mining industry Coal is used as a resource for making electricity Extraction Surface mining is done when the coal is near the surface Coal miners remove the soil above the coal The coal can then be removed without the coal miners having to go deep underground

What are the main methods of mining?

There are four main mining methods underground open surface (pit) placer and in-situ mining Underground mines are more expensive and are often used to reach deeper deposits Surface mines are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits Placer mining is used to sift out valuable metals from sediments in river channels beach sands or other environments In-situ mining

In 2000 NIOSH initiated a long-term project to demonstrate the implementation of an ergonomics process designed to identify and reduce exposures to ergonomic risk factors found in mining The mine selected for this project was the Jim Bridger Mine a surface coal mine located 35 miles northeast of Rock Springs Sweetwater County WY

Underground mines are the alternative to surface mines Surface mines excavate from the top down a method that can become inefficient at depths greater than about 200 feet (60 meters) [sources Illinois Coal Association De Beers] Undergrounds coal mines can drive 2 500 feet (750 meters) into the Earth and other types even deeper -- uranium mines can reach 6 500 feet or 2 kilometers

Surface Coal Mining Methods in Australia 5 2 Open cut mining methods strip mining Large-scale open cut coal mining operations commenced in Australia in mid 1960s and since then there has been significan t developments in this method of mining The mines are now operating at significantly higher annual tonnages growing deeper more complex and

The U S Government's Official Website for the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) OSMRE's business practices are to reclaim abandoned mine lands (Title IV) regulate active coal mines (Title V) and apply sound science through technology transfer

Surface mining and quarrying

Surface mining and quarrying have never been more efficient gas and coal bed methane Water well Pipeline trenching Demolition and recycling has achieved consistency and reliability in its production process This in turn has helped to boost efficiency throughout the operation

A new variation of open-cut mining high wall mining is not strictly a surface process but instead a combination of surface and sub-surface mining The process is also predominantly a coal mining technique which has been employed successfully in Kentucky and West ia in the United States and also in Queensland Australia

Techniques of surface mining include open-pit mining which is the recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground quarrying or gathering building materials from an open-pit mine strip mining which consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal ore/seams underneath and mountaintop removal commonly associated with coal mining

Feb 12 2020This type of surface mining also known as hard rock mining is typically employed to extract metal ores like copper gold iron and aluminum and other minerals Strip mining is a form of surface mining that is primarily used for coal excavation The rock and dirt covering the ore is removed one strip at a time

chapter 38-14 1 and this article within the entire area disturbed or affected by surface coal mining and reclamation operations and includes the collection of evidence with respect to every violation of those conditions or requirements 18 Complete permit application means an application for a surface coal mining and reclamation

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Surface coal mining involves disturbing overlying rock layers (overburden) to expose and extract coal reserves using the area mining method wherein the overburden above the uppermost coal seam and the innerburden between the lower coal seams are removed in parallel strips (pits) across the coalfield until the area is mined

UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERING – Vol II - Surface Mining Methods and Equipment - J Yamatomi and S Okubo Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Figure 2 Change in production and productivity of US coal mines The higher productivity for open pit mining equipment also lowers costs

Jun 22 2018The mining process is responsible for much of the energy we use and products we consume Mining has been a vital part of American economy and the stages of the mining process have had little fluctuation However the process of mining for ore is intricate and requires meticulous work procedures to be efficient and effective This is why we have

OSMRE Regulating Coal Mines

It ensures that coal mining operations are conducted in an environmentally responsible manner and that the land is adequately reclaimed during and following the mining process Most coal-mining States now have the primary responsibility to regulate surface coal mining on lands within their jurisdiction with OSMRE performing an oversight role

Mining is the process of mining stuff out of the ground Any material that cannot be grown must be mined Mining things from the ground is called extraction Mining can include extraction of metals and minerals like coal diamond gold silver platinum copper tin and iron

Wirtgen supplies surface miners in a variety of performance classes for the selective mining of commodities such as coal limestone bauxite gypsum salt and phosphate In addition to mining these machines can also carry out routing operations for constructing roads and railway tracks rehabilitating roadways and installing tunnel floors

We the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE or OSM) are announcing our final decision on a petition for rulemaking that was submitted by WildEarth Guardians The petition requested that we revise our current regulations to prohibit visible nitrogen oxide clouds during

To be eligible to assume primary regulatory authority pursuant to section 1253 of this title each State shall establish a planning process enabling objective decisions based upon competent and scientifically sound data and information as to which if any land areas of a State are unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations pursuant to the standards set forth in

The Kentucky Surface Mining Information System (SMIS) is an extensive computer database that is used for tracking all permitting and enforcement actions on coal mining activity in the Commonwealth of Kentucky Examples of information contained in SMIS include

It ensures that coal mining operations are conducted in an environmentally responsible manner and that the land is adequately reclaimed during and following the mining process Most coal-mining states now have the primary responsibility to regulate surface coal mining on lands within their jurisdiction with OSMRE performing an oversight role

Surface mining for coal has taken place in the Central Appalachian region of the United States for well over a century with a notable increase since the 1970s Researchers have quantified the ecosystem and health impacts stemming from mining relying in part on a geospatial dataset defining surface mining's extent at a decadal interval This dataset however does not deliver the temporal

The Surface Mining Unit reviews applications and approves surface mining land use plans issues surface mining permits conducts compliance evaluations of surface mining operations reviews and approves bonding requirements for surface mining operations and ensures reclamation of completed mining operations

surface and groundwater coal seam depth thickness and outcrops active inactive or abandoned underground mines and surface openings waste disposal areas pre-mining land slopes oil gas and water wells sequence of the land to be mined The operator must consult with the U S Natural Resource Conservation Service

Mar 12 2017Why is surface mining so destructive? Surface or strip mining damages and pollutes ecosystems to a great degree This is because by definition the process of strip mining involves striping away trees plants and topsoil so that the coal can be accessed underneath This means that surface mining destroys mountain tops landscapes forests and

This process is called reclamation Surface Mine Reclamation The reclamation process for all surface mining—including coal bentonite and trona—is very similar When mining begins the top soil—the top layer of fertile soil in which plants grow—is removed and saved for later use

Appalachian Voices commissioned a study in 2009 that showed nearly 1 2 million acres had been surface mined for coal and more than 500 mountains destroyed by mountaintop removal coal mining In some counties such as Wise County Va surface mining had impacted nearly 40% of the land area